C_{6}H_{5}OH + 3HNO_{3} → C_{6}H_{2}(NO_{2})_{3}OH + 3H_{2}O

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### Word Equation

Phenol + Nitric Acid = Picric Acid + Water

One mole of

and three moles of

react to tướng form one mole of

and three moles of

### Reactants

### Phenol - C

_{6}H_{5}OHCampho-Phenique Gel Phenol Homopolymer Phenol Polymer-Bound Synthetic Phenol Carbolic Oil Monophenol Tea Polyphenol Izal C6H5OH Molar Mass C6H5OH Oxidation Number

### Nitric Acid - HNO

_{3}

### Reaction Expressions

K_{c} or Q = ( [C_{6}H_{2}(NO_{2})_{3}OH] [H_{2}O]^{3} ) / ( [C_{6}H_{5}OH] [HNO_{3}]^{3} )

(assuming all reactants and products are aqueous. substitutue 1 for any solids/liquids, and Psubstance for gases.)

rate = -(Δ[C_{6}H_{5}OH] / Δt) = -1/3 * (Δ[HNO_{3}] / Δt) = (Δ[C_{6}H_{2}(NO_{2})_{3}OH] / Δt) = 1/3 * (Δ[H_{2}O] / Δt)

(assuming constant volume in a closed system and no accumulation of intermediates or side products)

## Instructions

To balance a chemical equation, enter an equation of a chemical reaction and press the Balance button. The balanced equation will appear above.

- Use uppercase for the first character in the element and lowercase for the second character. Examples: Fe, Au, Co, Br, C, O, N, F.
- Ionic charges are not yet supported and will be ignored.
- Replace immutable groups in compounds to tướng avoid ambiguity. For example, C6H5C2H5 + O2 = C6H5OH + CO2 + H2O will not be balanced, but XC2H5 + O2 = XOH + CO2 + H2O will.
- Compound states [like (s) (aq) or (g)] are not required.
- You can use parenthesis () or brackets [].

## How To Balance Equations

Read our article on how to tướng balance chemical equations or ask for help in our chat.

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## Balance C6H5OH + HNO3 = C6H2(NO2)3OH + H2O Using the Algebraic Method

To balance the equation C6H5OH + HNO3 = C6H2(NO2)3OH + H2O using the algebraic method step-by-step, you must have experience solving systems of linear equations. The most common methods are substitution/elimination and linear algebra, but any similar method will work.

### Label Each Compound With a Variable

Label each compound (reactant or product) in the equation with a variable to tướng represent the unknown coefficients.

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a C

_{6}H_{5}OH + b HNO_{3}= c C_{6}H_{2}(NO_{2})_{3}OH + d H_{2}O### Create a System of Equations

Create an equation for each element (C, H, O, N) where each term represents the number of atoms of the element in each reactant or product.

**C**: 6a + 0b = 6c + 0d**H**: 6a + 1b = 3c + 2d**O**: 1a + 3b = 7c + 1d**N**: 0a + 1b = 3c + 0d### Solve For All Variables

Use substitution, Gaussian elimination, or a calculator to tướng solve for each variable.

- 6a - 6c = 0
- 6a + 1b - 3c - 2d = 0
- 1a + 3b - 7c - 1d = 0
- 1b - 3c = 0

Use your graphing calculator's rref() function (or an online rref calculator) to tướng convert the following matrix into reduced row-echelon-form:

[ 6 0 -6 0 0] [ 6 1 -3 -2 0] [ 1 3 -7 -1 0] [ 0 1 -3 0 0]

The resulting matrix can be used to tướng determine the coefficients. In the case of a single solution, the last column of the matrix will contain the coefficients.

Simplify the result to tướng get the lowest, whole integer values.

- a = 1 (C6H5OH)
- b = 3 (HNO3)
- c = 1 (C6H2(NO2)3OH)
- d = 3 (H2O)

### Substitute Coefficients and Verify Result

Count the number of atoms of each element on each side of the equation and verify that all elements and electrons (if there are charges/ions) are balanced.

C

_{6}H_{5}OH + 3 HNO_{3}= C_{6}H_{2}(NO_{2})_{3}OH + 3 H_{2}OReactants Products C 6 6 ✔️ H 9 9 ✔️ O 10 10 ✔️ N 3 3 ✔️ Since there is an equal number of each element in the reactants and products of C6H5OH + 3HNO3 = C6H2(NO2)3OH + 3H2O, the equation is balanced.

## Balance C6H5OH + HNO3 = C6H2(NO2)3OH + H2O Using Inspection

The law of conservation of mass states that matter cannot be created or destroyed, which means there must be the same number atoms at the kết thúc of a chemical reaction as at the beginning. To be balanced, every element in C6H5OH + HNO3 = C6H2(NO2)3OH + H2O must have the same number of atoms on each side of the equation. When using the inspection method (also known as the trial-and-error method), this principle is used to tướng balance one element at a time until both sides are equal and the chemical equation is balanced.

### 1. Count the number of each element on the left and right hand sides

Reactants (Left Hand Side) | Products (Right Hand Side) | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Reactants | Products | ||||||

C_{6}H_{5}OH | HNO_{3} | Total | C_{6}H_{2}(NO_{2})_{3}OH | H_{2}O | Total | ||

C | 6 | 6 | 6 | 6 | ✔️ | ||

H | 6 | 1 | 7 | 3 | 2 | 5 | ❌ |

O | 1 | 3 | 4 | 7 | 1 | 8 | ❌ |

N | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | ❌ |

### 2. Multiply coefficients for compounds to tướng balance out each element

For each element that is not equal, try to tướng balance it by adding more of it to tướng the side with less. Sometimes there may be multiple compounds with that element on one side, ví you'll need to tướng use your best judgement and be prepared to tướng go back and try the other options.

**H**is not balanced. Add**1**molecule of**H**to tướng the product (right-hand) side to tướng balance Hydrogen:_{2}O

C_{6}H_{5}OH + HNO_{3}= C_{6}H_{2}(NO_{2})_{3}OH + 2H_{2}OReactants Products C 6 6 ✔️ H 7 7 ✔️ O 4 9 ❌ N 1 3 ❌ **N**is not balanced. Add**2**molecules of**HNO**to tướng the reactant (left-hand) side to tướng balance Nitrogen:_{3}

C_{6}H_{5}OH + 3HNO_{3}= C_{6}H_{2}(NO_{2})_{3}OH + 2H_{2}OReactants Products C 6 6 ✔️ H 9 7 ❌ O 10 9 ❌ N 3 3 ✔️ **H**is not balanced. Add**1**molecule of**H**to tướng the product (right-hand) side to tướng balance Hydrogen:_{2}O

C_{6}H_{5}OH + 3HNO_{3}= C_{6}H_{2}(NO_{2})_{3}OH + 3H_{2}OReactants Products C 6 6 ✔️ H 9 9 ✔️ O 10 10 ✔️ N 3 3 ✔️

### 3. Verify that the equation is balanced

Since there are an equal number of atoms of each element on both sides, the equation is balanced.

C_{6}H_{5}OH + 3HNO_{3} = C_{6}H_{2}(NO_{2})_{3}OH + 3H_{2}O

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